Why is Oceania's biodiversity so unique and therefore so remarkable? How severely is it affected by the global biodiversity crisis and the deleterious consequences of various human activities? What is the relationships between the peoples of Oceania and nature and how can traditional knowledge complement scientific knowledge? These were the main questions that guided the discussions in this workshop, focused on marine ecosystems , on the one hand, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, on the other. More than fifty experts diagnosed the current state of biodiversity and the various pressures it faces in order to propose specific solutions and recommendations.