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Parenting behaviors and the occurrence and co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems among african american children.

Authors
  • Kim, Irene J
  • Ge, Xiaojia
  • Brody, Gene H
  • Conger, Rand D
  • Gibbons, Frederick X
  • Simons, Ronald L
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43)
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2003
Volume
17
Issue
4
Pages
571–583
Identifiers
PMID: 14640806
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The occurrence and co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems were examined in the context of parenting behaviors in a community-based sample of 897 African American children and their primary caregivers using a multi-informant, longitudinal design. Parenting behaviors and clinical symptoms were assessed in 2 waves, when the children averaged 10.5 and 12.3 years of age. Parenting behaviors differed significantly according to a child's symptomatology; (a) that is, when a child exhibited no depressive or conduct problems, (b) depressive problems only, (c) conduct problems only, or (d) co-occurring depressive and conduct problems. When parenting behaviors were examined according to changes in children's symptom levels, children whose symptoms increased over time reported increases in hostility and harsh-inconsistent parenting and decreases in warmth and nurturant-involved parenting.

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