Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the most complex medical therapies prescribed by healthcare professionals because it is dependent on the compounding of multiple base solutions to arrive at the final formulation. The delivery of PN is associated with errors in ordering, transcribing, compounding, and delivery of the PN formulations. New compounding technologies will attempt to minimize the potential for these errors. In addition, the associated infectious complications associated with PN therapy need to be minimized. Commercially prepared, premixed, terminally sterilized PN solutions may have an impact. Broader decontamination technologies will be implemented to reduce the incidence of overall nosocomial infections. Modification of PN nutrients, particularly intravenous fat emulsions, will be provided by alternative biological sources, creating fats that may have an improved impact on the patient's immune system and ultimately affecting clinical outcomes.