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Parasitological, serological and molecular diagnosis of acute and chronic Chagas disease: from field to laboratory

Authors
  • Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel1
  • Alonso-Padilla, Julio2
  • Longhi, Silvia Andrea1
  • Picado, Albert3
  • 1 Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular Dr Hector Torres, CONICET, Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de la Enfermedad de Chagas, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • 2 Barcelona Institute for Global Health, University of Barcelona, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
  • 3 Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland
Type
Published Article
Journal
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Publisher
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2022
Volume
117
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760200444
PMID: 35613155
PMCID: PMC9164950
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

There is no consensus on the diagnostic algorithms for many scenarios of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which hinders the establishment of governmental guidelines in endemic and non-endemic countries. In the acute phase, parasitological methods are currently employed, and standardised surrogate molecular tests are being introduced to provide higher sensitivity and less operator-dependence. In the chronic phase, IgG-based serological assays are currently used, but if a single assay does not reach the required accuracy, PAHO/WHO recommends at least two immunological tests with different technical principles. Specific algorithms are applied to diagnose congenital infection, screen blood and organ donors or conduct epidemiological surveys. Detecting Chagas disease reactivation in immunosuppressed individuals is an area of increasing interest. Due to its neglect, enhancing access to diagnosis of patients at risk of suffering T. cruzi infection should be a priority at national and regional levels.

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