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Paranoia in patients with gender dysphoria: A clinical exploration

Authors
  • Karia, Sagar
  • Alure, Alpa
  • Dave, Tejesvi
  • Shah, Nilesh
  • De Sousa, Avinash
Type
Published Article
Journal
Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Publisher
Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2019
Volume
61
Issue
5
Pages
529–531
Identifiers
DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_433_18
PMID: 31579170
PMCID: PMC6767822
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Background: Gender identity disorder (GID) is a distressing disorder characterized by a persistent unhappiness with one's own gender and a desire to be of the opposite gender as well as seeking sex reassignment surgery for the same. The aim of the study was to assess the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles in patients with GID and compare with healthy normal population and also examine differences in the profiles based on original gender of the patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 patients with GID that fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 criteria for the same were participants of the study, and there were 54 control participants. They were administered the MMPI, and the scores across various scales were statistically analyzed. Results: It was seen that apart from masculinity feminity (Mf) scale, other scales such as Paranoia (Pa, P < 0.01), Schizophrenia (Sc, P = 0.01), and Psychopathic deviate (Pd, P < 0.01) were also elevated in many patients. Male patients seeking surgery to become female showed higher scores on Pa and Sc scales than female patients. On detailed inquiry, it was found that there was no evidence of psychosis clinically, and in fact, their paranoia was reality based. Conclusion: MMPI profiles in patients with GID needs to interpreted with caution and clinicians must keep in mind that elevated Pa and Sc scales on the MMPI in these patients need not indicate a psychotic profile.

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