The features of composite materials such as production flexibility, lightness, and excellent strength put them in the class of materials that attract attention in various critical areas, i.e., aerospace, defense, automotive, and shipbuilding. However, the machining of composite materials displays challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining structural integrity. In this study, Cu/Mo-SiCP composite materials were produced by powder metallurgy with varied reinforcement ratios and then their machinability was investigated. In machinability experiments, the process parameters were selected as cutting speed (vC), feed rate (f), depth of cut (aP), and reinforcement ratio (RR). Two levels of these parameters were taken as per the Taguchi’s L8 orthogonal array, and response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for parametric optimization. As a result, the outcomes demonstrated that RR = 5%, f = 0.25 mm/rev, aP = 0.25 mm, vC = 200 m/min for surface roughness, RR = 0%, f = 0.25 mm/rev and aP = 0.25 mm and vC = 200 m/min for flank wear and RR = 0%, f = 0.25 mm/rev, aP = 0.25 mm, vC = 150 m/min for cutting temperature for cutting temperature and flank wear should be selected for the desired results. In addition, ANOVA results indicate that reinforcement ratio is the dominant factor on all response parameters. Microscope images showed that the prominent failure modes on the cutting tool are flank wear, built up edge, and crater wear depending on reinforcement ratio.