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Parallel gradients in comprehensive multidimensional liquid chromatography enhance utilization of the separation space and the degree of orthogonality when the separation mechanisms are correlated.

Authors
  • Aly, Alshymaa A1
  • Muller, Magriet2
  • de Villiers, Andre2
  • Pirok, Bob W J3
  • Górecki, Tadeusz4
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada; Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Menia Governorate, Egypt. , (Canada)
  • 2 Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa. , (South Africa)
  • 3 Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Canada)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of chromatography. A
Publication Date
Sep 27, 2020
Volume
1628
Pages
461452–461452
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461452
PMID: 32822990
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) offers increased peak capacity, resolution and selectivity compared to one-dimensional liquid chromatography. It is commonly accepted that the technique produces the best results when the separation mechanisms in the two dimensions are completely orthogonal, which necessitates the use of gradient elution for each second-dimension fraction. Recently, the use of similar separation mechanisms in both dimensions has been gaining popularity, but full or shifted gradients are still used for each second dimension fraction. Herein, we argue that when the separation mechanisms are correlated in the two dimensions, the best results can be obtained with the use of parallel gradients in the second dimension, which makes the technique nearly as user-friendly as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This has been illustrated through the separation of a mixture of 39 pharmaceutical compounds using reversed phase in both dimensions. Different selectivity in the second dimension was obtained through the use of different stationary phase chemistries and/or mobile phase organic modifiers. The best coverage of the separation space was obtained when parallel gradients were applied in both dimensions, and the same was true for practical peak capacity. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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