Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is among the systemic mycoses which are endemic only in Latin America. In Argentina, the vast majority of the cases are reported at north of latitude 34.5° S. The disease is produced by thermodimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidoides: P. brasiliensis (S1), P. americana (PS2), P. restrepiensis (PS3), P. venezuelensis (PS4) y P. lutzii. The natural habitat of members of this genus is the soil, where they produce infectious conidia. Little is known, however, about their specific ecologic niche(s), and this knowledge gap hampers the design of measures to control the infection. Rural male workers are the group most at risk of developing PCM. Infection occurs by inhalation of aerosolized conidia and may either be asymptomatic or cause mild respiratory symptoms. In turn, this primary infection may be self-limited or progress to severe pulmonary or disseminated disease. The disease has two clinical presentations: (i) acute or subacute (juvenile), frequent in children, adolescents and people with immunodeficiencies; and (ii) chronic progressive, in adults. Active lesions often resolve into fibrotic scars which can cause dysphagia, dysphonia, adrenal insufficiency, and intestinal obstruction. Although efficient tools are available for diagnosis and treatment, the nonspecific nature of PCM clinical manifestations frequently delay the diagnosis. In addition, the poor adherence to long antifungal treatments allows the advance of the disease and the development of extensive fibrosis compromising severely and permanently respiratory and adrenal functions, thus altering the patient"s quality of life and even causing his/her death.