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Pain, negative affective states and opioid-based analgesics: Safer pain therapies to dampen addiction.

Authors
  • Massaly, Nicolas1
  • Markovic, Tamara2
  • Creed, Meaghan3
  • Al-Hasani, Ream4
  • Cahill, Catherine M5
  • Moron, Jose A6
  • 1 Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, Pain Center, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address: [email protected] , (United States)
  • 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, Pain Center, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. , (United States)
  • 3 Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, Pain Center, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States. , (United States)
  • 4 Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, Pain Center, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, St. Louis College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, MO, United States; Center for Clinical Pharmacology, St. Louis College of Pharmacy and Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. , (United States)
  • 5 Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Shirley and Stefan Hatos Center for Neuropharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Jane & Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States. , (United States)
  • 6 Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, Pain Center, St. Louis, MO, United States; Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States. , (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International review of neurobiology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
Volume
157
Pages
31–68
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/bs.irn.2020.09.002
PMID: 33648672
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Across centuries and civilizations opioids have been used to relieve pain. In our modern societies, opioid-based analgesics remain one of the most efficient treatments for acute pain. However, the long-term use of opioids can lead to the development of analgesic tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, opioid use disorders, and overdose, which can ultimately produce respiratory depressant effects with fatal consequences. In addition to the nociceptive sensory component of pain, negative affective states arising from persistent pain represent a risk factor for developing an opioid use disorder. Several studies have indicated that the increase in prescribed opioid analgesics since the 1990s represents the root of our current opioid epidemic. In this review, we will present our current knowledge on the endogenous opioid system within the pain neuroaxis and the plastic changes occurring in this system that may underlie the occurrence of pain-induced negative affect leading to misuse and abuse of opioid medications. Dissecting the allostatic neuronal changes occurring during pain is the most promising avenue to uncover novel targets for the development of safer pain medications. We will discuss this along with current and potential approaches to treat pain-induced negative affective states that lead to drug misuse. Moreover, this chapter will provide a discussion on potential avenues to reduce the abuse potential of new analgesic drugs and highlight a basis for future research and drug development based on recent advances in this field. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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