We present the case for subspecialisation in paediatric gastrointestinal and hepato-pancreatico-biliary radiology. We frame the discussion around a number of questions: What is different about the paediatric patient and paediatric gastrointestinal system? What does the radiologist need to do differently? And finally, what can be translated from these subspecialty areas into everyday practice? We cover conditions that the sub-specialist might encounter, focusing on entities such as inflammatory bowel disease and hepatic vascular anomalies. We also highlight novel imaging techniques that are a focus of research in the subspecialties, including contrast-enhanced ultrasound, MRI motility, magnetisation transfer factor, and magnetic resonance elastography.