Forty-five stage A1 prostatic adenocarcinomas from patients with a mean age of 65 years were examined for p53 and c-myc expression to determine whether the presence or absence of these proteins could predict tumor behavior. Thirteen (6 of 45) and seventy-three percent (33 of 45) of cases were respectively p53 and c-myc positive. p53 expression was confirmed to the tumor cells, whereas c-myc immunoreactivity was present in both malignant and surrounding hyperplastic prostate. Statistical analysis showed that although p53 and c-myc expression were positively correlated, expression of neither nuclear protein was associated with a significantly worse survival (p53: p = 0.0791 exact two-tailed; c-myc: p = 0.738 exact two-tailed). These results suggest that while both p53 and c-myc may play a role in prostatic carcinogenesis, neither appears to identify patients who may benefit from treatment in stage A disease.