Bronchial asthma is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. The orosomucoid 1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) gene is related to childhood asthma and is involved in airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The ORMDL3 promoter contains binding sites for the histone acetylase p300. Gene expression can be affected by epigenetic modifications. This study aimed to investigate whether the p300-mediated histone acetylation (HAT) of ORMDL3 gene affects airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. 16HBE14o- cells were transfected with various concentrations of a wild-type p300 plasmid or p300HAT-deletion plasmids. A dual luciferase reporter assay was used to examine the effect of p300-mediated HAT on the ORMDL3 promoter. Thirty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a control group, an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma group and an asthma + C646 (a selective inhibitor of p300) group. Noninvasive lung function tests were conducted to examine airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in the different groups. HE and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to examine airway remodeling and inflammation. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and real-time PCR were used to analyze ORMDL3 expression in lung tissues. ELISA and western blotting were used to evaluate the HAT status in lung tissue. The ChIP assay was used to determine the relationship of the ORMDL3 promoter to p300 or acetylated histone H3 (aceH3). p300 activated transcription from the ORMDL3 promoter, resulting in an increase in endogenous ORMDL3 mRNA levels. ORMDL3 promoter activity was reduced when the HAT activity of p300 was lost. ORMDL3 expression was elevated, and HAT activity was high in the lung tissues of asthmatic mice. p300 and aceH3 bound to the promoter region of ORMDL3. In the asthma group, the amounts of p300 and aceH3 recruited to the ORMDL3 promoter were increased. C646 inhibited p300 expression and reduced HAT activity and aceH3 levels in asthmatic mice, thereby reducing ORMDL3 expression and relieving AHR and airway remodeling. p300-mediated HAT modulates the expression of the asthma susceptibility gene ORMDL3, thereby improving the process of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.