The cyclin kinase inhibitor p27kip1 acts as a potent tumor supressor protein in a variety of human cancers. Its expression levels correlate closely with the overall prognosis of the affected patient and often predict the outcome to different treatment modalities. In contrast to other tumor suppressor proteins p27 expression levels in tumor cells are frequently regulated by ubiquitin dependent proteolysis. Re-expression of p27 in cancer cells therefore does not require gene therapy but can be achieved by interfering with the protein turnover machinery. In this review we will summarize experimental results which highlight the potential use of p27 as a target for oncological therapies.