Because of the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in multidrug resistance (MDR), it has been suggested that P-gp might play a role in acute and chronic rejection after organ transplantation. The purpose of the present work was to investigate a possible relationship between graft outcome and P-gp expression on peripheral mononuclear cells of renal transplant recipients. We determined P-gp expression in 27 patients with long-term, stable graft function (ST) and in 15 patients with chronic deterioration of graft function (CR). In addition, 40 patients were studied prior to, and at intervals after, transplantation with 21 healthy individuals serving as controls. P-gp values were highest in healthy controls and in ST patients. We found no correlation between P-gp values and acute rejection. CR patients tended to have lower levels of P-gp expression. Our results contradict the opinion that an overexpression of P-gp induces acute or chronic rejection by inhibiting the efficacy of immunosuppressive treatment.