Reactive oxygen species derived from molecular oxygen are highly reactive metabolites. These species can be generated by cellular or acellular mechanisms. They react with all biological molecules such as protein, lipid, and carbohydrates. The reaction of these species with lipids, called lipid peroxidation, is a very well-studied phenomenon. Compounds, which scavenge these molecules, are called antioxidants. The disruption of the delicate balance between pro- and antioxidants has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases such as, for example, atherosclerosis. This article presents an introduction to what reactive oxygen species are and their reactions with various metabolites. It deals with lipid peroxidation in detail and with methods for measuring lipid peroxidation. This article also outlines the importance of these species in the pathology of various gynecological diseases.