In addition to the hemodynamic components, the roles of various humoral factors have been emphasized in the progression of vascular and renal injury in hypertension. Radical scavenging properties have attracted much attention in this field. This article discusses the implication of antioxidant properties of the antihypertensive diuretic indapamide on renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Hydroxyl radicals, oxygen radicals toxic to cellular membranes, are eradicated by indapamide in different assay systems, e.g., reduction of alpha-alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl, rat brain homogenate, or xanthine-xanthine oxidase systems. Such antioxidant effects of indapamide are primarily due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals, and this mechanism may stimulate prostacyclin generation through activation of prostacyclin synthase. In fact, the antioxidant properties of indapamide are well expressed in vivo as well; indapamide treatment reduced oxygen radicals in the kidney of Dahl S rats with hypertension. This was accompanied by a functional improvement of the kidney; decreases in urinary protein and n-acetylglucosaminidase excretion and an increase in glomerular filtration rate were observed. In addition, indapamide morphologically ameliorated the renal injury, and decreased glomerular sclerosis score, arterial injury, and renal tubular injury. Trichloromethiazide reduces blood pressure similar to that produced by indapamide. However, trichloromethiazide did not lead to reduction of oxygen radicals in the kidney, and did not improve the functional disturbance or morphological injury seen in Dahl S rats. These results indicate that indapamide has antioxidant properties, and in addition to blood pressure reduction, such radical scavenging effects may contribute to its beneficial effects on renal function in vivo.