Oxygen is an important parameter for organic-waste composting, and continuous control of the oxygen in a composting pile may be beneficial. The oxygen consumption rate can be used to measure the degree of biological oxidation and decomposition of organic matter. However, without having a real-time online device to monitor oxygen levels in the composting pile, the adjustment and optimization of the composting process cannot be directly implemented. In the present study, we researched and developed such a system, and then tested its stability, reliability, and characteristics. The test results showed that the equipment was accurate and stable, and produced good responses with good repeatability. The equilibrium time required to detect oxygen concentration in the composting pile was 50 s, and the response time for oxygen detection was less than 2 s. The equipment could monitor oxygen concentration online and in real time to optimize the aeration strategy for the compost depending on the concentration indicated by the oxygen-measuring equipment.