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Oxidative stress and inflammation: liver responses and adaptations to acute and regular exercise.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Free Radical Research
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Feb 06, 2017
Pages
1–32
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/10715762.2017.1291942
PMID: 28166653
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The liver is remarkably important during exercise outcomes due to its contribution to detoxification, synthesis and release of biomolecules, and energy supply to the exercising muscles. Recently, liver has been also shown to play an important role in redox status and inflammatory modulation during exercise. However, while several studies have described the adaptations of skeletal muscles to acute and chronic exercise, hepatic changes are still scarcely investigated. Indeed, acute intense exercise challenges the liver with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation onset, whereas regular training induces hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory improvements. Acute and regular exercise protocols in combination with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation have been also tested to verify hepatic adaptations to exercise. Although positive results have been reported in some acute models, several studies have shown an increased exercise-related stress upon liver. A similar trend has been observed during training: while synergistic effects of training and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplementations have been occasionally found, others reported a blunting of relevant adaptations to exercise, following the patterns described in skeletal muscles. This review discusses current data regarding liver responses and adaptation to acute and regular exercise protocols alone or combined with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation. The understanding of the mechanisms behind these modulations is of interest for both exercise-related health and performance outcomes.

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