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An overview of sex hormones in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection

Authors
  • Ghare Naz, Marzieh Saei1
  • Banaei, Mojdeh2
  • Dashti, Sareh3
  • Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani1
  • 1 Reproductive Endocrinology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1985717413, Iran
  • 2 Mother & Child Welfare Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, 7916613885, Iran
  • 3 Department of Midwifery, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, 9187147578, Iran
Type
Published Article
Journal
Future Virology
Publisher
Future Medicine
Publication Date
Jul 20, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.2217/fvl-2021-0058
PMID: 34306167
PMCID: PMC8293688
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

Female and male sex hormones (SexHs) play a pivotal role in the body’s defense against viral infections. SexHs and their binding molecules are among the main possible indicators of sex disparities in COVID-19 severity and response to treatment. Changes in the levels of SexHs from the childbearing age to menopause and pregnancy in females, and the aging process in males affect the immune function. This article sheds light on how physiologic hormonal differences in different sexes and in different stages of life affect COVID-19 severity. As a consequence the role of SexHs should be considered in vaccine development and treatment of COVID-19, especially for patients who suffer from hormone-related medical conditions in different stages of life.

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