Objective: Utilizing cytology specimens for molecular testing has attracted increasing attention in the era of personalized medicine. Cytology specimens are clinically easier to access. The samples can be quickly and completely fixed in a very short time of fixation before tissue degradation occurs, compared to hours or days of fixation in surgical pathology specimens. In addition, cytology specimens can be fixed without formalin, which can significantly damage DNA and RNA. All these factors contribute to the superb quality of DNA and RNA in cytology specimens for molecular tests. Study Design: We summarize the most pertinent information in the literature regarding molecular testing in the field of cytopathology. Results: The first part focuses on the types of cytological specimens that can be used for molecular testing, including the advantages and limitations. The second section describes the common molecular tests and their clinical application. Conclusion: Various types of cytology specimens are suitable for many molecular tests, which may require additional clinical laboratory validation.