Leptospirosis is probably the world's most widespread zoonosis. It remains underdiagnosed largely due to the broad spectrum of signs and symptoms attributable to this spirochetal pathogen. Leptospira spp. cause a diversity of diseases from flu-like illness to Weil's syndrome with multi-organ failure. Recent epidemics may herald a change in virulence or an alteration in the balance between humans and their interactions with other host species and the environment.