Computer-assisted techniques have been successfully used in many surgical procedures. More recently, computer-assisted surgery has been used to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of implant alignment in total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. However, the impact of computer-assisted surgery on long-term clinical outcomes and implant survivorship in total joint arthroplasty has yet to be documented. The adoption of computer-assisted surgical systems for use in total joint arthroplasty will be heavily influenced by the economic impact on the various stakeholders in the health-care system. Currently, there are mixed financial incentives for surgeons, hospitals, and payers to adopt and use computer-assisted surgical techniques for total joint arthroplasty. Careful consideration of the impact of computer-assisted surgery on surgeon and hospital productivity as well as the financial contribution of this technology to hospital profit margins would provide valuable insight into the adoption and widespread use of computer-assisted surgery.