Genetic selection has led to spectacular advances in animal production in many domestic species. However, it is still little applied to honey bees (Apis mellifera), whose complex genetic and reproductive characteristics are a challenge to model statistically. Advances in informatics now enable creation of a statistical model consistent with honey bee genetics, and, consequently, genetic selection for this species. The aim of this project was to determine the genetic parameters of several traits important for Canadian beekeepers with a view to establishing a breeding program in a northern context. Our results show that the five traits measured (Varroa destructor infestation, spring development, honey production, winter consumption, and hygienic behavior) are heritable. Thus, the rate of V. destructor infestation has a high heritability (h2 = 0.44 ± 0.56), spring development and honey production have a medium heritability (respectively, h2 = 0.30 ± 0.14 and h2 = 0.20 ± 0.13), and winter consumption and hygienic behavior have a low heritability (respectively, h2 = 0.11 ± 0.09 and h2 = 0.18 ± 0.13). Furthermore, the genetic correlations between these traits are all positive or null, except between hygienic behavior and V. destructor infestation level. These genetic parameters will be instrumental to the development of a selection index that will be used to improve the capacity of honey bees to thrive in northern conditions.