Immunotherapy (IO) has revolutionized the therapy landscape of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), significantly prolonging the overall survival (OS) of advanced stage patients. Over the recent years IO therapy has been broadly integrated into the first-line setting of non-oncogene driven NSCLC, either in combination with chemotherapy, or in selected patients with PD-L1high expression as monotherapy. Still, a significant proportion of patients suffer from disease progression. A better understanding of resistance mechanisms depicts a central goal to avoid or overcome IO resistance and to improve patient outcome. We here review major cellular and molecular pathways within the tumor microenvironment (TME) that may impact the evolution of IO resistance. We summarize upcoming treatment options after IO resistance including novel IO targets (e.g. RIG-I, STING) as well as interesting combinational approaches such as IO combined with anti-angiogenic agents or metabolic targets (e.g. IDO-1, adenosine signaling, arginase). By discussing the fundamental mode of action of IO within the TME, we aim to understand and manage IO resistance and to seed new ideas for effective therapeutic IO concepts.