No standard treatment protocol to guide the management of the primary central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs). To evaluate the efficacy of GTR (gross total resection), RT (radiotherapy), CCMT (conventional chemotherapy), or intensified chemotherapy (ICMT) and verify the optimal treatment strategy. A total of 501 cases (18 cases from our center and 483 cases from published literature) were eligible for analysis. Clinical characteristics were reviewed, and overall survival (OS) of each combined treatment modality was compared. These prior publication data were processed according to PRISMA guidelines. This study included 265 (52.9%) males and 216 (43.1%) females. The median age of the cohort was 2.2 years with 295 (58.9%) cases younger than 3 years. GTR was achieved in 217 (43.3%) patients. Initial adjuvant CCMT, CCMT plus intrathecal chemotherapy (ITCMT), CCMT plus high-dose chemotherapy (HDCMT), and CCMT plus ITCMT and HDCMT were administered in 228 (45.5%), 78 (15.6%), 55 (11.0%), and 24 (4.8%) patients, respectively. Radiotherapy (RT) was prescribed in 266 (53.1%) patients. Fewer patients younger than 3 years old received RT (21.9% vs 33.0%, p < 0.001, chi-square test). The OS of the entire cohort at 1, 3, and 5 years were 56.6, 35.9, and 30.8%, respectively. After adjusting for age and sex, GTR (HR 0.630; p < 0.001), RT (HR = 0.295; p < 0.001), CCMT (HR = 0.382; p < 0.001), and ICMT (HR = 0.209; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors. The 3-year OS of surgery alone, surgery plus CCMT, surgery plus RT, surgery plus ICMT, surgery plus CCMT and RT, and surgery plus ICMT and RT were 8.9, 13.4, 23.7, 37.4, 48.3, and 68.5%, respectively. When taking into consideration the extent of tumor resection (n = 462), GTR followed by RT, CCMT, intrathecal chemotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy provided the best OS (5-year OS 88.2%). In younger children, adjuvant ICMT had a greater 3-year OS than adjuvant RT alone (34.0% vs 0%, p = .001). This study identified independent favorable predictors for OS of ATRTs and distinguished significantly different OS following various treatment modalities. If tolerable, intensive treatment with GTR followed by adjuvant RT and ICMT is recommended. Intensified CCMT could be an alternative to avoid radiological radiotoxicity for younger children CRD42018098841.