Real-time PCR was used to investigate the role of progesterone (P4) and oestradiol (E2) in regulation of endometrial cytosolic, secretory and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A, PLA2G2A and PLA2G6, respectively) gene expression. Ovariectomized mares underwent 6 days of E2 pre-treatment followed by 14 days of P4 supplementation. At the start of P4 treatment (Day 1), mares were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive either E2 or vehicle starting on Day 11 and endometrial biopsy collection on either Day 14 when P4 concentrations remained high (>4 ng/ml) or Day 16 when P4 concentrations had declined (0.5-2 ng/ml). Additional biopsies were collected from ovariectomized mares on Day 8, which served as control. Blood samples were collected for P4 determination. PLA2G4A expression was higher (p < 0.05) on Day 14 compared with Day 8. In contrast, PLA2G2A did not change significantly (p < 0.12). PLA2G4A and PLA2G2A gene expression increased (p < 0.05), as P4 concentration dropped, on Day 16. In contrast, PLA2G6 gene expression did not show differences between days. Treatment with oestradiol did not increase PLA2 isoforms expression when compared to treatment with the vehicle. PLA2G4A and PLA2G2A were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with P4 concentrations. In conclusion, P4 withdrawal upregulated PLA2G4A and PLA2G2A gene expression, and this was not affected by E2. PLA2G4A and PLA2G2A but not PLA2G6 gene expression may be involved in controlling prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis and luteolysis.