In most continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) studies, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients were excluded and the outcomes of patients with ESRD treated with chronic hemodialysis (HD) were unknown. The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate short-term patient survival and (2) compare the survival of conventional HD patients needing CRRT with the survival of non-ESRD patients in acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring CRRT. We evaluated adults (>18 years) requiring CRRT who were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Kosin University Gospel Hospital from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. A total of 100 (24 ESRD, 76 non-ESRD) patients underwent CRRT during the study period. Patients were divided into two major groups: patients with ESRD requiring chronic dialysis and patients without ESRD (non-ESRD) with AKI. We compared the survival of conventional HD patients requiring CRRT with the survival of non-ESRD patients in AKI requiring CRRT. For non-ESRD patients, the 90-day survival rate was 41.6%. For ESRD patients, the 90-day survival rate was 55.3%. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that conventional HD was not a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.334, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.063-1.763, P = 0.196), after adjustment for age, gender, presence of sepsis, APACHE score, use of vasoactive drugs, number of organ failures, ultrafiltration rate, and arterial pH. The survival rates of non-ESRD and ESRD patients requiring CRRT did not differ; ESRD with conventional HD patients may be not a significant predictor of mortality.