The authors analyzed the outcome of 56 episodes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in dialysis patients. Eleven patients (20%) left the hospital alive. Univariate analysis showed that a functional cause of cardiac arrest, absence of rib fractures, and the occurrence of cardiac arrest in the dialysis or intensive care units were associated with a favorable outcome. Logistic regression showed that the outcome of CPR was related to the presence of rib fractures, cause of arrest, degree of preexisting heart disease, and patient age. Despite the high incidence of rib fractures (77%), the outcome of CPR in dialysis patients is similar to its outcome in the general population.