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Outbreak of typhoid fever in vaccinated members of the French Armed Forcesin the Ivory Coast

Authors
  • Michel, Rémy1
  • Garnotel, Eric2
  • Spiegel, André1
  • Morillon, Marc2
  • Saliou, Pierre3
  • Boutin, Jean-Paul1
  • 1 Institut de Médecine Tropicale du Service de Santé des Armées, Département d’épidémiologie et de santé publique, Marseille, France , Marseille
  • 2 Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées Alphonse Laveran, Service de biologie clinique, Marseille, France , Marseille
  • 3 Laboratoire du Val de Reuil, Aventis Pasteur, Lyon, France , Lyon
Type
Published Article
Journal
European Journal of Epidemiology
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2005
Volume
20
Issue
7
Pages
635–642
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10654-005-7454-6
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

In 2001, an outbreak of typhoid fever occurred among the members of the French Armed Forces. All had received a typhoid vaccination as per the immunization schedule practiced in the Armed Forces (every 5 years). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 94 personnel. The objectives were to confirm the diagnosis, determine the source of contamination and identify the factors associated with defective vaccinal efficacy. Twenty-four cases were clinically identified. A cucumber salad was identified as the contaminating dish (Risk Ratio=3.6; 95%CI 1.5–8.9). Only one factor was related to defective vaccinal efficacy; the risk of typhoid fever was twofold higher in people vaccinated more than 3 years previously (Risk Ratio = 2.2; 95%CI, 1.1–4.2). Compliance with food hygiene rules could have prevented 24 cases of typhoid fever. Nevertheless, repeat vaccination against typhoid fever is now conducted every 3 years in the French Forces, in compliance with the manufacturers’ recommendations.

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