An inverse relationship between bone marrow (BM) adiposity and bone mass has been described in different physiological and pathological conditions, including osteoporosis (OP). In osteoporotic patients, lower bone mass density is indeed associated with higher BM fat content, suggesting a potential role for bone lipids in the OP pathogenesis. Nevertheless, some questions remain. Is that BM adiposity a cause or a consequence of the bone loss? What kinds of lipids are involved? Human data are somehow contradictories regarding bone lipid signature related to OP, and animal data are needed to support on one or another way the human observations. Bone lipid signature associated to OP needs to be clarified if we want to understand better their roles in OP. In that context, by using an ovariectomy-induced OP murine model and looking at lipids in two bone compartments: BM and mineralized tissue (MT), our first challenge was to identify local lipid changes in relation to OP, in view to explore later the mechanisms by which those compounds could alter bone quality, particularly during the mineralization process. As the most striking data, long-term OP resulted in an accumulation of triglycerides, reduced levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, an increase of stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices and a reduction of sphingomyelin in the MT, and potential consequences on bone properties and cell activities are discussed. The reader will appreciate that we are at an early stage of understanding the roles of lipids in the OP development and more investigations will be necessary. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.