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Osteoclasts Provide Coupling Signals to Osteoblast Lineage Cells Through Multiple Mechanisms

Authors
  • Sims, Natalie A.
  • Martin, T. John
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Physiology
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Feb 10, 2020
Volume
82
Pages
507–529
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-021119-034425
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Bone remodeling is essential for the repair and replacement of damaged and old bone. The major principle underlying this process is that osteoclast-mediated resorption of a quantum of bone is followed by osteoblast precursor recruitment; these cells differentiate to matrix-producing osteoblasts, which form new bone to replace what was resorbed. Evidence from osteopetrotic syndromes indicate that osteoclasts not only resorb bone, but also provide signals to promote bone formation. Osteoclasts act upon osteoblast lineage cells throughout their differentiation by facilitating growth factor release from resorbed matrix, producing secreted proteins and microvesicles, and expressing membrane-bound factors. These multiple mechanisms mediate the coupling of bone formation to resorption in remodeling. Additional interactions of osteoclasts with osteoblast lineage cells, including interactions with canopy and reversal cells, are required to achieve coordination between bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling.

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