Bone regeneration for the defects in revision surgery of joint replacement is an increasingly important issue. To repair bone defects, bone cell activation by growth factors using synthetic resorbable scaffold is a useful and safe option. We examine the efficiency of nanogel-crosslinking hydrogel as a novel synthetic scaffold for BMP to stimulate osteoblasts and to induce bone formation. Cholesterol-bearing pullulan nanogel-crosslinking hydrogel (CHPA/Hydrogel) was used to deliver BMP. The CHPA hydrogel pellets were implanted in vivo. Single implantation of CHPA/hydrogel containing low amounts of BMP induced osteoblastic activation and new bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, nanogel in a disc shape established recruitment of osteoblastic cells that vigorously formed bone to heal the calvarial defects, which did not heal spontaneously without it. In conclusion, CHPA/hydrogel serves as an efficient and versatile scaffold for the stimulation of osteoblasts to form bone and to repair defects via delivery of BMP.