Epileptic activity involves intracellular depolarizations, burst discharges, and network oscillations over a wide range of frequencies. It is well-known that recurrent synaptic excitation between principal neurons is important in generating these activities. Recent studies have also indicated that gap junctions exist between the axons of principal neurons, and that the gap junctions contribute to the initiation and shaping of epileptiform discharges. In particular, axonal gap junctions are involved in generating very fast oscillations (VFO) (>70 Hz) that often occur prior to, and during, a seizure. Gap junctions are also of prime importance in generating gamma (30–70 Hz) and beta (15–30 Hz) oscillations that can precede, or intermix with, epileptiform discharges.