Main conclusionA rice gene (OsSIRP2) encoding the RING Ub E3 ligase was highly induced under salinity stress and physically interacted with a transketolase (OsTKL1). Overexpression of OsSIRP2 conferred salinity and osmotic stress tolerance in plants.The RING E3 ligases play a vital role in post transitional modification through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation that mediate plants responses during abiotic stresses and signal transduction. In this study, we report an Oryza sativa salt induced Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger protein 2 gene (OsSIRP2) and elucidate its role under salinity and osmotic stress. The transcript levels of OsSIRP2 in rice leaves were induced in response to different abiotic stresses, such as salt, drought, heat, and abscisic acid (ABA) exposure. In vitro ubiquitination revealed that the OsSIRP2 protein formed poly-ubiquitin products, whereas a single amino acid substitution in OsSIRP2 (OsSIRP2C149A) in the RING domain did not form ubiquitinated substrates, supporting the hypothesis that E3 ligase activity requires the functional RING domain. Using the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay, O. sativa transketolase 1 (OsTKL1) was identified as an interacting partner. OsSIRP2 was localized in the nucleus, whereas its interacting partner (OsTKL1) was localized in the cytosol and plastids in the rice protoplasts. Fluorescence signals between OsSIRP2 and OsTKL1 were observed in the cytosol. The pull-down assay confirmed the physical interaction between OsSIRP2 and OsTKL1. In vitro ubiquitination assay and in vitro protein degradation assay revealed that OsSIRP2 ubiquitinates OsTKL1 and enhances the degradation of OsTKL1 through the 26S proteasomal pathway. Heterogeneous overexpression of OsSIRP2 resulted in conferring tolerance against salinity and osmotic stress. Overall, our findings suggest that OsSIRP2 may be associated with plant responses to abiotic stresses and act as a positive regulator of salt and osmotic stress tolerance.