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An Origin of Citations: Darwin's Collaborators and Their Contributions to the Origin of Species.

Authors
  • de Lima Navarro, Pedro1
  • de Amorim Machado, Cristina2
  • 1 Maringá State University (UEM), Maringá, PR, 87020-900, Brazil. [email protected] , (Brazil)
  • 2 Maringá State University (UEM), Maringá, PR, 87020-900, Brazil. , (Brazil)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of the history of biology
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2020
Volume
53
Issue
1
Pages
45–79
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10739-020-09592-8
PMID: 31965381
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

In the first edition of the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin apologized for not correctly referencing all the works cited in his magnum opus. More than 150 years later we have catalogued these citations and analyzed the resultant data. Looking for a complete selection of collaborators, a flexible interpretation of the term citation was necessary; we define it as any reference made to a third party, independently of its form or function. Following the same idea, the sixth edition of the Origin, originally published in 1872 and reprinted with minor additions and corrections in 1876, was chosen for the research because it represents the end of a long debate between Darwin and his peers. It naturally is the edition with the greatest number of citations and collaborators. Through a diverse theoretical analysis, we aim to present a new perspective for the study of the Origin of Species: a bibliographic approach that provides the tools needed to understand the history of the book as a physical and cultural object. Bibliometrics provides a theory of citations as well as a quantitative analysis; science studies highlights the profound social aspects of science in the making. The analysis resulted in 639 citations to 298 collaborators and provided a new perspective of the rhetorical structure of the Origin, even though these results are only the tip of the iceberg of the potential of all the data gathered in this study.

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