The paper analyses the work of a children ophthalmological department and of a centre of microsurgery in children created on its basis, that are attributed to the structure of the town ophthalmological clinical hospital in Kharkov. The paper presents data on the structure of eye pathology, surgical activity (it makes up 60%), suggestions for optimizing the work of the department. A positive role in optimization of work in children department is its belonging to a big ophthalmological hospital. This allows to widely use for children the whole store of diagnostic means, different surgical equipment, other technical means. Of importance is a permanent contact with the chair of children ophthalmology, enrollment of physicians into research work, constant improvement of their skill.