Affordable Access

deepdyve-link
Publisher Website

Orexin/Hypocretin System: Role in Food and Drug Overconsumption.

Authors
  • Barson, Jessica R1
  • Leibowitz, Sarah F2
  • 1 Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States. , (United States)
  • 2 The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address: [email protected] , (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International review of neurobiology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2017
Volume
136
Pages
199–237
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/bs.irn.2017.06.006
PMID: 29056152
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin (OX), while largely transcribed within the hypothalamus, is released throughout the brain to affect complex behaviors. Primarily through the hypothalamus itself, OX homeostatically regulates adaptive behaviors needed for survival, including food intake, sleep-wake regulation, mating, and maternal behavior. However, through extrahypothalamic limbic brain regions, OX promotes seeking and intake of rewarding substances of abuse, like palatable food, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine. This neuropeptide, in turn, is stimulated by the intake of or early life exposure to these substances, forming a nonhomeostatic, positive feedback loop. The specific OX receptor involved in these behaviors, whether adaptive behavior or substance seeking and intake, is dependent on the particular brain region that contributes to them. Thus, we propose that, while the primary function of OX is to maintain arousal for the performance of adaptive behaviors, this neuropeptide system is readily co-opted by rewarding substances that involve positive feedback, ultimately promoting their abuse.

Report this publication

Statistics

Seen <100 times