BackgroundWe aimed to analyse the oral health status of adolescents in Shandong province, including dental caries and gingivitis, and their associated factors.MethodsAdolescents aged 12–15-years in Shandong province were recruited. Caries and gingival status were assessed following the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Information including the sociodemographic, oral hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices were collected through the questionnaire. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the oral diseases associated factors.ResultsIn total, 3868 students (50.2% males) were enrolled. Of these, 39.9% of the participants experienced caries, and 81.7% and 31.3% had calculus and bleeding gingival, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that there was an association between dental caries and toothaches, dental visits and sleeping troubles caused by oral problems (P < 0.024). A low-frequency of brushing, high sugar consumption and no flossing were more associated with calculus formation and gingival bleeding (P < 0.008).ConclusionCompared to caries, worse gingival condition was more prevalent among adolescents in Shandong province. Brushing behaviour is associated with gingivitis, while dental visits and toothaches are associated with caries. Hence, prevention-oriented dental visits and oral hygiene training are strongly recommended to improve oral health status.