Very few studies have been performed to evaluate cranio-maxillofacial trauma diagnosed in hospitals in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an analysis of oral and cranio-maxillofacial trauma in the aforementioned population. A hospital-based retrospective study, which reviewed 1438 patient records, was conducted at the "Teresina Emergency Hospital", Brazil. Data regarding demographics, day of the week on which trauma occurred, type of injury, etiology, anatomic trauma site, time of hospital admission, and associated comorbidities (or injuries) were collected. There were 1092 (75.9%) males and 346 (24.1%) females. The largest group was adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years (956, 66.5%). The majority lived in urban areas (69%). Trauma occurred most frequently during the week. The most prevalent etiology was road traffic accidents involving motorcycles (771, 53.6%) causing facial and skull fractures (598, 41%). The most prevalent soft tissue lesions were facial abrasions (49%), followed by injuries to the cheek (16.7%). Comorbidities associated with craniofacial trauma were present in 82%, with complications from traumatic brain injuries being the most prevalent (65.6%) Dental trauma was recorded in only 81 cases (5.6%). Male adolescents living in urban areas were most affected by craniofacial trauma. The most common cause was road traffic accidents involving motorcycles, resulting in facial and skull fractures. Complications from traumatic brain injuries were the most common associated injuries. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.