The 0/1 loss is an important cost function for perceptrons. Nevertheless it cannot be easily minimized by most existing perceptron learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a family of random coordinate descent algorithms to directly minimize the 0/1 loss for perceptrons, and prove their convergence. Our algorithms are computationally efficient, and usually achieve the lowest 0/1 loss compared with other algorithms. Such advantages make them favorable for nonseparable real-world problems. Experiments show that our algorithms are especially useful for ensemble learning, and could achieve the lowest test error for many complex data sets when coupled with AdaBoost.