Rapid monitoring of the microbial content in indoor air is an important issue. In this study, we develop a method for applying a Coriolis sampler coupled with a portable ATP luminometer for characterization of the collection efficiency of bioaerosol samplers and then test this approach in field applications. The biological collection efficiencies of the Coriolis sampler and a BioSampler for collecting four different types of bioaerosols, including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida famata and endospores of Bacillus subtilis , were compared in a chamber study. The results showed that the ATP assay may indicate the four microbes’ viability, and that their defined viabilities were positively correlated with their culturability. In addition, the optimal sampling conditions of the Coriolis sampler were a 200 L/min flow rate and a sampling time of 30 min. Under these conditions, there was no significant difference in sampling performance between the BioSampler and Coriolis sampler. In field applications, the best ATP benchmark that corresponded to culturable levels of < 500 CFU/m3 was 287 RLUs (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 80%) for bacteria and 370 RLUs (sensitivity: 79%; specificity: 82%) for fungi according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Consequently, an ATP criterion is recommended for indicating whether the corresponding airborne culturable concentrations of microbes meet those of published guidelines.