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Optimal Powder Deposition Process to Develop a New Direct-Write Additive Manufacturing System

  • Chung, Haseung1, 2
  • Lee, Nanum3
  • Ko, Jeonghan3, 4
  • Lee, Taebong2
  • Lee, Pil-Ho1, 5
  • Choi, Jin Young3
  • 1 Michigan State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 220 Trowbridge Rd, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA , East Lansing (United States)
  • 2 Hongik University, Department of Mechanical and System Design Engineering, 94, Wausan-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 04066, Republic of Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 3 Ajou University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 206, World cup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16499, Republic of Korea , Suwon-si (South Korea)
  • 4 The University of Michigan, Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, 1205 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA , Ann Arbor (United States)
  • 5 Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Department of 3D Printing, 156, Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 34103, Republic of Korea , Daejeon (South Korea)
Published Article
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing
Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Publication Date
May 14, 2019
DOI: 10.1007/s12541-019-00129-6
Springer Nature


In functionally graded materials (FGM), material property gradually changes within a product. To manufacture FGM by additive manufacturing (AM) using polymer powders, precise deposition of different powder materials is crucial. The powder deposition, however, is challenging, because process control and material choices are complicated. This paper presents a newly developed laser-based AM system using the direct deposit of poly-lactic acid powders on the target surface. This direct-writing AM system can facilitate material change even within a layer for superior material property variation. This study characterizes the optimal process conditions for deposition consistency by statistical methods. This study also identifies suitable statistical models by examining the model characteristics such as lack-of-fit and curvature. In addition, this study finds an appropriate statistical method to handle process abnormality such as no powder flow. Through these analyses, this study characterizes the optimal combination of process conditions and material choices for stable powder deposition, and verifies the best conditions for the new AM system. This study will help develop a new AM system with the optimal deposition for each material composition to produce novel material structure for FGM.

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