The thermo-mechanical properties of streptavidin-conjugated gold nanospheres, adhered to a surface via complex molecular chains, are investigated by two-color infrared asynchronous optical sampling pump-probe spectroscopy. Nanospheres with different surface densities have been deposited and exposed to a plasma treatment to modify their polymer binding chains. The aim is to monitor their optical response in complex chemical environments that may be experienced in, e.g., photothermal therapy or drug delivery applications. By applying unsupervised learning techniques to the spectroscopic traces, we identify their thermo-mechanical response variation. This variation discriminates nanospheres in different chemical environments or different surface densities. Such discrimination is not evident based on a standard analysis of the spectroscopic traces. This kind of analysis is important, given the widespread application of conjugated gold nanospheres in medicine and biology.