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Optical fiber surrounded by a graphene layer as an optical sensor

Authors
  • Al-Ashi, Noor E.1
  • Taya, Sofyan A.1
  • El-Naggar, Sahar A.2
  • Vigneswaran, D.3
  • Amiri, I. S.4, 4
  • 1 Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine , Gaza (Palestinian Territories)
  • 2 Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt , Giza (Egypt)
  • 3 Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 042, India , Coimbatore (India)
  • 4 Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam , Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Optical and Quantum Electronics
Publisher
Springer US
Publication Date
Mar 16, 2020
Volume
52
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11082-020-02288-7
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

An optical sensor composed of a circular cylindrical fiber surrounded by graphene layer is investigated. The thin layer of graphene is located at the core–cladding interface. The cladding is an aqueous material. The conductivity (σ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sigma$$\end{document}) of the graphene layer is taken as σ=σ′+jσ″\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sigma = \sigma^{\prime} + j\sigma ^{\prime\prime}$$\end{document}, where σ′\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sigma ^{\prime}$$\end{document} and σ″\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sigma ^{\prime\prime}$$\end{document} is the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity. We consider TE waves to propagate in the structure. Using Maxwell’s equations, the dispersion relation is derived. Also, the sensitivity of the effective refractive index to any changes in the aqueous cladding refractive index is deduced. It is found that the sensitivity of the proposed optical fiber can be dramatically improved with the variation of graphene layer conductivity.

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