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Optical and electrochemical methods for determining the effective area and charge density of conducting polymer modified electrodes for neural stimulation.

Authors
  • Harris, Alexander R1
  • Molino, Paul J
  • Kapsa, Robert M I
  • Clark, Graeme M
  • Paolini, Antonio G
  • Wallace, Gordon G
  • 1 School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University , Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia. , (Australia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Analytical Chemistry
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Jan 06, 2015
Volume
87
Issue
1
Pages
738–746
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/ac503733s
PMID: 25495574
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Neural stimulation is used in the cochlear implant, bionic eye, and deep brain stimulation, which involves implantation of an array of electrodes into a patient's brain. The current passed through the electrodes is used to provide sensory queues or reduce symptoms associated with movement disorders and increasingly for psychological and pain therapies. Poor control of electrode properties can lead to suboptimal performance; however, there are currently no standard methods to assess them, including the electrode area and charge density. Here we demonstrate optical and electrochemical methods for measuring these electrode properties and show the charge density is dependent on electrode geometry. This technique highlights that materials can have widely different charge densities but also large variation in performance. Measurement of charge density from an electroactive area may result in new materials and electrode geometries that improve patient outcomes and reduce side effects.

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