An estimated 15%-40% of incarcerated persons in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Approximately 1.4 million HCV-infected persons pass through the corrections system annually, accounting for one-third of the total number of HCV-infected persons in the United States. This high prevalence of HCV infection is due to the substantial increase in drug-related arrests over the past 2 decades. Although the hepatitis C epidemic in the corrections system may be viewed as a burden on correctional health systems, it is an important public health opportunity and an obligation. Research on the implementation of cost-effective HCV screening, prevention, and treatment programs among incarcerated persons is essential. Testing, education, and, when appropriate, treatment of prisoners should be a cornerstone of the public health response to the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States.