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Open-label crossover study of primaquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine pharmacokinetics in healthy adult thai subjects.

Authors
  • Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas
  • Ashley, Elizabeth A
  • Jittamala, Podjanee
  • Tarning, Joel
  • Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon
  • Hanpithakpong, Warunee
  • Chotsiri, Palang
  • Wattanakul, Thanaporn
  • Panapipat, Salwaluk
  • Lee, Sue J
  • Day, Nicholas P J
  • White, Nicholas J
Type
Published Article
Journal
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2014
Volume
58
Issue
12
Pages
7340–7346
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.03704-14
PMID: 25267661
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is an artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) recommended by the WHO for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and it is being used increasingly for resistant vivax malaria where combination with primaquine is required for radical cure. The WHO recently reinforced its recommendations to add a single dose of primaquine to ACTs to reduce P. falciparum transmission in low-transmission settings. The pharmacokinetics of primaquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in 16 healthy Thai adult volunteers in a randomized crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to two groups of three sequential hospital admissions to receive 30 mg (base) primaquine, 3 tablets of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (120/960 mg), and the drugs together at the same doses. Blood sampling was performed over 3 days following primaquine and 36 days following dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine dosing. Pharmacokinetic assessment was done with a noncompartmental approach. The drugs were well tolerated. There were no statistically significant differences in dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine pharmacokinetics with or without primaquine. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration significantly increased plasma primaquine levels; geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval [CI]) of primaquine combined versus primaquine alone for maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to the end of the study (AUC0-last), and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-∞) were 148% (117 to 187%), 129% (103 to 163%), and 128% (102 to 161%), respectively. This interaction is similar to that described recently with chloroquine and may result in an enhanced radical curative effect. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01525511.).

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