A newly identified cellulase-producing Fusarium chlamydosporum HML278 was cultivated under solid-state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse, and two new β-glucosides enzymes (BG FH1, BG FH2) were recovered from fermentation solution by modified non-denaturing active gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular weight of BG FH1 and BG FH2 was 93 kDa and 52 kDa, respectively, and the enzyme activity was 5.6 U/mg and 11.5 U/mg, respectively. The optimal reaction temperature of the enzymes was 60 ℃, and the enzymes were stable with a temperature lower than 70 ℃. The optimal pH of the purified enzymes was 6.0, and the enzymes were stable between pH 4–10. Km and Vmax values were 2.76 mg/mL and 20.6 U/mg for pNPG, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that BG FH1and BG FH2 had hydrolysis activity toward cellobiose and could hydrolyze cellobiose into glucose. In addition, both enzymes exhibited transglycoside activity, which could use glucose to synthesize cellobiose and cellotriose, and preferentially synthesize alcohol. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that F. chlamydosporum HML278 produces heat-resistant β-glucosidases with both hydrolytic activity and transglycosidic activity, and these β-glucosidases have potential application in bioethanol and papermaking industries.