Falls are a primary cause of physical disability in older adults, making them a major public health problem. Locomotive syndrome risk assessments have proven to be simple to administer, practical, and useful as screening tools in detecting decreased mobility in middle-aged and elderly adults. The current prospective study investigated whether these tests were associated with future falls among elderly Japanese. This study was a two-year prospective observational study. A total of 1800 individuals (aged 65-79 years) who were without certification of long-term care or physical disability were initially invited through letters to participate in the study. Of these, 499 individuals (225 men, 274 women) agreed to participate and underwent baseline assessments. Demographic information, body function physical performance measurements, and locomotive syndrome risk tests [Stand-Up Test (SUT), Two-Step Test (TST), and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25)] were assessed. Following baseline evaluation, we sent a follow-up questionnaire to assess fall history in the past two years. Participants were classified as either "non-fallers" or "fallers" (denoted by one or more falls). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between falls and each factor by providing adjusted odds ratio estimates. The follow-up questionnaire was returned by 399 participants, 54 of whom (13.5%) fell at least once during the two-year observation period. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that difficulty with standing on one leg from a 40-cm-high seat (a portion of the SUT) was a significant predictor of future falls (odds ratio = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.04-4.69, p = 0.04). A history of falling was also a risk factor of falls. Our results suggest that standing on one leg from a 40-cm-high seat is predictive of falling in older adults, even after adjustment for previous falls and other confounding variables. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.