One of the major problems that occupational medicine has to deal with is cancer risk assessment. Recent Italian legislation requires the evaluation of occupational exposure to carcinogens in all workplaces, but a standardized method to be used in the environmental and biological criteria is generally lacking. The objective of this report is to identify a multidisciplinary approach to the research on this topic. The study is based on a chemical plant that produces pitch. The multidisciplinary approach is based on risk- and health-damage assessments. Ethical aspects are also taken into account, and the research design incorporates an informed consent for all employees. Some preliminary results are available. From the environmental point of view, all parameters provide an airborne concentration value below threshold limit values (TLVs), but biological monitoring demonstrates an increased urinary excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in all tested subjects. In conclusion, the first objective of our study is to demonstrate the carcinogenic risk of employees, searching for an agreement between environmental analysis, biological monitoring, and health effect data. A close collaboration between different professions is necessary.